Evolution is a natural raw wholefood, combining a selection of some of nature's most perfect foods. Nutrition is the key to good health and this wholefood blend of Rare West Australian native bee pollen, certified organic Barley grass, certified organic Maca and Aloe Vera, is abounding with vitamins, minerals, enzymes and amino acids in their naturally occurring state. Evolution does not contain any fillers, all the ingredients bring their own special benefit to the product.  Evolution helps provide the daily nutrition you need to develop a strong foundation for your good health.


The concentration of nutrients in food depends on the soil content. Alcohol, smoking, the cooking of vegetables, meats, and processed food can rob the body of nutrients which can be obtained from a whole food supplement.

Studies have shown that regular consumption of natural fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.  Clinical trials with individual antioxidants do not appear to provide the consistent protective effects anticipated. Rather the additive and synergistic effects of the complex mixture of phytochemicals present in these whole foods are responsible for the potent antioxidant and anticancer activities. This explains why no single nutrient can replace the combination of natural phytochemicals to achieve health benefits.  The evidence suggests that bioactive compounds are best acquired through whole-food consumption and not from isolate dietary supplements.


West Australian Native Bee Pollen:


Western Australia has a high density of unique plant species that produce high quality pollens. This pollen is harvested free of chemicals from pristine forests and conservation reserves in natural indigenous bush, away from any farming activity to ensure it is in its purest form possible. Bee pollen has been described as nature's most complete food and has been widely used for centuries.


There are 2 types of pollen.  Anemophile pollen is wind carried and is responsible for plant fertilisation. The other is entomophile pollen, which attaches to insects, such as bees when they forage for nectar.  Bee pollen is essentially entomophile pollen, which is more solid and substantial than the wind driven kind. 


New health properties have been identified and should excite health conscious consumers


Western Australian Pollen is a nutrient-dense natural source of high protein and low fat that contains essential fatty acids and a complete range of minerals and vitamins. Gathered from the stamen of flowers, the pollen is rich in vitamins A, D, E and all the B-complex, enzymes and co enzymes, carbohydrates and fatty acids.


Eucalyptus pollens are dominated by an "essential" fatty acid for human health known as linoleic acid. This needs to be consumed as it cannot be manufactured in the body. As a polyunsaturated fatty acid, linoleic acid helps lower the ratio of low-density lipoproteins (LDL's) to high-density lipoproteins (HDL's). The LDL's known as the bad lipoproteins, carry fats such as cholesterol from our liver to our cells whilst HDL's carry cholesterol to our liver to be excreted as bile into the intestine. Eucalypt pollens have one of the highest percentages of linoleic acid in the world, making it unique and beneficial.

Pollen is a good source of iron, zinc, manganese and copper and is rich in rutin, which strengthens capillaries. Vitamin B12 and E are found in relative abundance.


The Amino Acids present in this pollen are superior to those of animal origin, with pollen containing five to seven times more amino acids than beef and cheese of equal weight. Bee pollen is a low calorie food, high in lethicin, about 15% by volume, Lethicin helps to normalise fat metabolism.


In spite of all the sophisticated high technology available bee pollen cannot be duplicated in the laboratory.  This native bush pollen in its pure state is a powerful natural food source.

Barley Grass, Certified Organic by BFA IFOAM Accredited


The Organic Barley Grass powder is a wholesome green food made from the powdered dehydrated leaves of organically grown young barley plants (Hordeum vulgare). Our Barley grass powder is an excellent provider of green vegetable nutrition. It is a rich source of dietary fibre for good colon health and regularity and a natural source of minerals, vitamins and antioxidants.

The bright green colour reflects the abundance of chlorophyll, a source of magnesium.


Contrary to popular opinion, our Barley Grass does not contain gluten. This means it is safe for those who have gluten allergies.


Timing is critical for nutritional value. Not all barley is harvested at its nutritional peak. Since 1935 scientists have known that the highest concentrations of nutrients are present for just a few critical days. By the time the young sprout reaches its nutritional peak it is between 6 and 8 inches tall. It then forms a joint that goes on to form the stalk of the grain.


At harvest, only the top 10 centimetres of the grass are harvested because this section has the richest content of nutrients. Harvest occurs just prior to jointing. Once jointing occurs, the nutritional level in the leaves begins to drop as the shoot's nutrients are used in the growth and development of the head of the grain. After low temperature warm air-drying, the grass is powdered in a special air mill at room temperature.


Main features - Significant source of Chlorophylls, mixed Carotenoids, Antioxidants, Folic Acid, Protein and Omega-3.


Alkaline Foods - It is important to keep the fluids in our bodies on the alkaline side to reduce the risk of bone loss. Barley grass is an alkaline food.


Antioxidants - Barley grass contains significant levels of antioxidants. We have known of the presence of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase, but the presence of Vitamin E Succinate an analogue of alpha-tocopherol, and an even more powerful antioxidant," 2"-O-glycosyl isovitexin, which is an isoflavonoid have been reported. Although isoflavonoids are potential therapeutic "anti-estrogens", they have significant antioxidant value as well.


Benefits - Barley grass powder is a concentrated source of vegetable greens, essential to life. Chlorophyll, for natural cleansing of the blood and support to the immune system, and Beta Carotene, the precursor of Vitamin A, are present in highly significant quantities.

Maca, Lepidium Meyenii, Certified Organic


Maca is a root vegetable cultivated high in the Andean Mountains. Its use as a superfood dates back 10,000 years.


Maca is a whole food. It is adaptogenic meaning that it will work on the body according to needs, age and gender of the person taking it - allowing males and females of all ages to benefit from taking it regularly.


Maca was originally identified in the 1800's by a German botanist who named it "Lepidium meyenii, Walpers" (after himself) - still the ONLY name officially recognized by the Peruvian government.  From the 1960's, a research worker investigating Maca's constituents attempted to rename Maca after herself, hence "Lepidium peruvianum, Chacon".


There is only one species that is grown commercially for harvest, which is "Lepidium meyenii, Walpers" and should not be confused with other species.


The best Maca is grown in the Junin Plateau where it has been grown for thousands of years using traditional farming methods. The key factors resulting in good quality Maca are altitude (4,100m above sea level), soil type & microclimate.


Maca Root contains significant amounts of amino acids, complex carbohydrates, Vitamins B1, B2, C, E and minerals including calcium, phosphorous, zinc, magnesium and iron.


How Do I Know Which Maca Brand Is The Best Quality?


A superior quality Maca brand as used in Evolution is certified organic and not genetically modified and this is your only guarantee.  A high protein count is a great indicator of optimal growing conditions and careful processing. Maca is a carbohydrate root vegetable, so a light colour and sweet taste means that the amino acids, vitamins, minerals, essential fatty acids and other nutrients have been better preserved.


Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis) Certified Organic


Aloe Vera is another ingredient that adds remarkable healing properties to Evolution Historical documents reveal that the Roman, Greek, Arab, Indian and Chinese cultures used Aloe Vera extensively as a medicinal plant. Aloe Vera is a great source of more than 200 active ingredients, including vitamins, minerals and amino acids.


Aloe Vera is not a cactus plant as many think or consider, but rather a member of the Lilly family.  The official name Aloe barbadensis is from the botanist Dr Miller who characterised the plant in Barbados, although the plant is native to Northern Africa.  Components are obtained from the leaf, the sap and a mucilaginous gel derived from the inner cells of the leaf.  The inner Aloe gel is made up of polysaccharides and a vast array of bioactive chemical substances, which play a major role in the healing process.


The Aloe Vera in Evolution is bifurcated Aloe Vera gel and combines all the ingredients of the leaf including the outer Aloe rind, as recent research indicates this contains numerous bioactive ingredients including the glycoproteins, polysaccharides and important enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase.  The powerful protective antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase works in conjunction with vitamins C, E and glutathione.


The substances identified in Aloe Vera are divided into 2 groups based on their molecular weight.


The high molecular weight substances include the mucilaginous polysaccharides such as the neutral B (1-4) mannans, acidic galacturonic mannans and galacto-mannans.  The other substances are glycoproteins and a variety of enzymes 


The main feature of this Aloe Vera, is that the long molecular polysaccharide mannan, is not hydrolysed during manufacturing into smaller components, losing its original chemical structure and biological activity.  The manufacturing process allows the original Aloe Vera polysaccharide mannan to be present in the final product unaltered and unmodified.  One unique characteristic of this Aloe Vera polysaccharide is that human gastric enzymes cannot hydrolyse its linkages.


The low molecular weight substances include; Saponins, Flavonoids, Fatty acids and their esters, Tannins, Sulphur derivatives, Glucosamine, glutamine, terpenoids and biological growth factors.


Although each one of the above contents has an individual biological ability, an aspect that makes Aloe Vera unique is that all these substances act synergistically as a group. Chemically, two major classes of substances form Aloe Vera; hydrophilic substances that are water soluble and hydrophobic or non water soluble. Since human metabolism and cell composition are compose both types of systems, Aloe Vera can act as a natural biological vehicle, capable of stimulating and normalising the main physiological biological functions of the human body.


Therefore, in bifurcated Aloe Vera gel the benefits include the inner Aloe gel and the other active substances present in the outer Aloe rind resulting in a superior product.


Main Features


A, C, E, B, B12, Choline, Folic Acid

Amino Acids

Aloe contains 7 of the 8 essential amino acids.
Provides 20 of 22 amino acids required by humans.


Aloe provides 9 essential minerals such as Calcium, Copper, Chromium, Magnesium, Iron, Potassium, Zinc, Sodium, and Manganese.


Natural plant growth hormones, sterols and salicylates.


Provides 8 important enzymes


Monosaccharides and Polysaccharides (long chain sugar molecules that are essential to the quality and efficacy of Aloe Vera.



Several detailed scientific studies have revealed that the diverse biochemical components present in Aloe Vera participate in the following biological processes.

A number of the substances present in Aloe Vera decrease the effects of inflammatory mediators reducing pain and inflammation.


Aloe Vera through the action of its B (1-4) mannan can stimulate the immune function. This substance is a long chain polydispersed beta (1-4) polymannose with interspersed O acetyl groups with a mannose monomer ratio of approximately 1:1. The acetyl groups make this polysaccharide distinct from other similar mannans in the animal and plant kingdom. How this functions in the immune system is unclear and the Aloe polysaccharide may activate macrophages, the initiating cell in inflammation.


One of the most well known properties of Aloe Vera is the ability to promote wound healing


The antioxidant activity and radical scavenging effect of Aloe Vera is related to a large number of substances and not to a particular group.


Two low molecular components may prevent ultraviolet B immune suppression in the skin, acting as a defence mechanism and assisting with repair.


Aloe Vera juice has a favourable effect on gastrointestinal physiology in humans.  The frequent ingestion of Aloe Vera may benefit many diverse human metabolic functions and strengthen the immune system.

Typical analysis of Evolution








1480 kJ/100g


C14:1 Myristoleic



13.8 g/100g


C16:1 Palmitoleic



3.8 g/100g


C17:1 Heptadecenoic


Saturated fat

1.4 g/100g


C18:1 Oleic


Protein (N x 6.25)

0.8 g/100g


C20:1 Eicosenic



3.8 g/100g


C22:1 Docosenoic


Carbohydrates Total

78 g/100g


C24:1 Nervinic



39 g/100g


Total mono-unsaturated



8.4 g/100g





0.8 /100g





<0.2 g/100g


C18:2w6 Linoleic



<0.2 g/100g


C18:3w6 gamma-Linolenic





C18:3w3 alpha-Linolenic





C20:2w6 Eicosadienoic


C4:0 Butyric



C20:2w5 Eicosatrienoic


C6:0 Caproic



C20:4w6 Arachidonic


C8:0 Caprylic



C20:5w3 Eicosapentaenoic


C10:0 Capric



C22:2w6 Docosadienoic


C12:0 Lauric



Omega 3 Fatty Acids


C14:0 Myristic



Omega 6 Fatty Acids


C15:0 Pentadecanoic



C22:4w6 Docosatetraenoic


C16:0 Palmitic





C17:0 Margaric





C18:0 Stearic



Total Poly-unsaturated







C22:0 Behenic



Total Mono Trans Fatty Acid


C24:0 Lignocaric





Total saturated



Total Poly Trans Fatty Acid










P:M:S ratio


Typical analysis of Evolution



Provitamin A

B1 Thiamine

B2 Riboflavine

B3 Niacin

B6 Group

Pantothenic acid



Folic acid



Vitamin C

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K





monatomic gold             663ppm

monatomic rhodium    3210ppm

monatomic iridium      2290ppm

























Amino Acid Anaysis mg/g after hydrolysis

Alanine                          8.4

Arginine                        9.8

Asparagine +

Aspartic acid               14.3

Glutamic acid +

Glutamine                   18.4

Glycine                         6.1

Histidine                       3.3

Isoleucine                      6.3

Leucine                        11.0

Lysine                         9.5

Methionine                 1.9

Phenylalanine              6.5

Proline                         18.4

Sarcosine                     0.07

Sarina                            4.6

Threonine                      6.0

Tryptophan                0.49

Tyrosine                       3.4

Valine                            6.2













Nucleic acids



Phenolic acids








Omega 3

Omega 6




The nutritional make-up of Barley Grass / 100g powder



















Omega-3 ALA












Carbohydrate total Sugars 3.3gm


Vitamin C




Crude Fiber












Barley Grass Amino Acid profile per 100g after hydrolysis













Aspartic Acid






Glutamic Acid












Nutritional make up of Maca

Energy                       1542kj


Fats                           1.9g


Total sugars              31.3g


Potassium                 1700mg


Protein                      14.6g


Carbohydrates          72.1g


Sodium                      39mg


Calcium                     351mg


Amino Acids






Aspartic acid


Glutamic acid


























Tryptophan, Tyrosine, Valine


Major substances present in Aloe Vera barbadensis

1) Low molecular weight

Barbaloin(Aloin, isomers A and B)          Phenta-hydroxyflavones

Homonataloin                                              Minerals and their salt

Aloesin                                                          Calcium Oxalate

Alomoin                                                         D-X ylotocopherol

Saponins                                                      Pentahydroxyflavones

Asparagine                                                   Limonene

Flavonoids and Glycosides                                   Lupeol

Galacturonic and hexauronic acids         Glucosamine and glutamine

Fatty acids and esters                                Vitamins

Myrcene                                                         Terpenoids

Tannins                                                         Carditionic glycosides

Tryptolidine                                                   Phenols

Sulfur derivates                                            Biological growth factors

B-Sitosterol, and sterols                            Alkaloids

Isoprenoids                                                  Salicyclic acid

2) High molecular weight

a) Mucilagenous polysaccharides, neutral B (1-4) mannans, acidic galacturonic mannans and galacto-mannans.

b) Glycoproteins

c) Enzymes

Š      Isoenzymes

Š      Catalases

Š      Cellulases

Š      Bradykinase

Š      Carboxypeptidases



Scientists have recently discovered that in the modern diet many vital nutrients are missing including the glyconutrients, which are a group of biologically active sugars. These specific natural substances are immune enhancers that prepare and optimize our defense system and can provide us with added protection by immoblising the immune system when required. Some researchers have called these glyconutrients “miracle sugars”. These sugars are considered critical and essential for human health.


These glyconutrients are required for every cell in the body to function and these sugars sustain complex processes that occur in the cell to transfer coded messages. These sugars should not be confused with common table sugar, which is refined sugar, also known as sucrose


The term ‘Glyco “ is derived from the Greek word meaning “ sweet’. Therefore a glyconutrient is any substance that contains sugar and the sugar can be attached to any molecule and is also termed a glycoform.


Glyconutrients are the recently discovered class of necessary carbohydrate nutrients and although there are over 200 specific carbohydrate monosaccharides only a few are considered ‘necessary biologically active sugars’. There are 8 specific and 3 intermediate biological sugars and it is important to have a balance of these sugars, as refined white sugar is over consumed and provides little benefit to our health.


Plants that have a high glyconutrient content are known as ‘ healing plants.

Glyconutrients are found in Aloe Vera, garlic, yeasts, coconut, maize, some algae, Echinacea, saps, gums and certain mushrooms. 


The leaves of Aloe Vera are extremely rich in the long chain sugars (polysaccharides) that give Aloe Vera its healing and anti - infective properties when used both internally and externally. Aloe contains mannose, galactose and arabinose and it is the mannose content that makes it a superior immune booster.


Studies show that aloe vera has numerous properties, namely, Anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti bacterial, and anti-inflammatory properties.


The following sugars are required in the diet and breast milk contains all the essential sugars.


Mannose, Xylose and Fucose are not readily available in the diet. Mannose and Fucose have well documented benefits for the immune system, has a natural anti-inflammatory effect and may lower blood sugar levels. Xylose is used in sweets, does not cause tooth decay and has anti-bacterial and anti-fungal properties.


Glucose and galactose are readily available in the diet. Glucose occurs in sugar, rice, potatoes, corn and wheat and other starchy foods. Galactose is “milk sugar” and is derived from lactose.


The sugars with an acetyl group, namely, N-acetyl-neuraminic acid, N-acetyl- glucosamine and N-acetyl-galactosamine are not readily available in the diet.


N-acetyl-neuraminic acid is abundant in breast milk; effects brain function and boosts the immune system.


N-acetyl- glucosamine is beneficial for cartilage regeneration and joint inflammation. Glucosamine is derived from this sugar compound.


The least information is known about the essential sugar N-acetyl-galactosamine.


Glyconutrients are essential in virtually every interaction between cells and are an immune system modulator. They are involved in cell-cell communication and are a vital part of how a cell functions, similar to an ‘operating system’. In particular studies on the function of the brain, they indicate glyconutrients increase reaction time and concentration.


An inadequate intake of the essential sugars requires the body to synthesize the necessary glyconutrients from other sources. If there is a deficiency of the needed glyconutrients from other sources, the cells ability to carry out the intercellular communications is limited and most probably defective making the organism susceptible to disease. A supply of glyconutrients to the body promotes and maintains health.


There have been numerous studies performed worldwide at universities and major pharmaceutical companies and this research is ongoing.


Research has shown the effects of the biologically active sugars are: -


  • Boosts the immune system by increasing natural killer cell and macrophage count. These cells are the first line of defense.


  • Mannose stimulates macrophages and also initiates other the secretion of cytokines involved in the immune cascade. T Cells are also activated under certain conditions.


  • Assists immune cells recognize invaders or foreign antigens and enables cells to communicate initiating the right intercellular reactions.


  • Has antioxidant properties protecting the body against free radical damage.


  • Due to their saccharide components glyconutrients have anti-inflammatory properties and are beneficial for cartilage regeneration and joint inflammation.


A vitamin is a chemically organic substance, containing carbon, essential for regulating both the metabolic functions in the body cells and the biochemical processes that release energy from food. In addition, evidence is accumulating that certain vitamins are antioxidants – substances that protect tissues from cell damage and may possibly help to prevent a number of degenerative diseases.

With a few exceptions, namely, vitamin D and vitamin K the body cannot manufacture vitamins so they must be ingested.


There are 13 known vitamins, which are classified as water-soluble or fat-soluble. This distinction is important because the body stores fat-soluble vitamins for a long time (months or even years), whereas water-soluble vitamins (except for vitamin B12 remain in the body for a short time and must be replaced regularly.


The Water-soluble vitamins are vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and eight members of the vitamin B complex- thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin, pyridoxine (B6), folic acid, cobalomin, (B12), biotin and pantothenic acid.


The Fat-soluble vitamins are retinal (vitamin A), cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol (vitamin D), a- tocopherol (vitamin E), and phylloquinone and menaquinone (vitamin K). Only vitamins A, E and B12 are stored to a significant extent in the body.



Vitamin A (retinol) was the first recognized fat-soluble vitamin and rapidly gained recognition as a factor in the maintenance of the immune system.


Carotenes are the most widespread group of naturally occurring pigments in nature. These occur in green leafy vegetables and are converted to retinol in the mucosal cells of the small intestine. Retinol is then reduced to retinal and then esterified. Most of the body’s vitamin A is stored in the liver as retinyl palmitate.


The conversion of provitamin A carotenes to vitamin A depends on several factors, including protein status, zinc and vitamin C.


Vitamin A is vital for the visual system, particularly the components of the eye, skin, mucous membranes of the respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts. The immune system abnormalities associated with Vitamin A deficiency include an impaired ability to mount an effective antibody response.


The role of vitamin A and the carotenes in the maintenance of epithelial tissues cannot be over emphasized.  Inadequate intake can cause: -

  • Impaired dark adaptation and night blindness related to the retina,
  • Damage to the cornea and conjunctiva of the eye
  • Alterations to the mucous lining of the respiratory, genitourinary and gastrointestinal tracts (keratinisation) so the function is impaired
  • Increased susceptibility to infections (immune system)
  • Changes to skin (follicular keratosis).


It is believed Vitamin A affects growth and development as it has a role in the synthesis of many glycoproteins (mucus), which may control cellular differentiation and gene expression.


Carotenes have antioxidant activity.



Thiamine was the first B vitamin discovered and was named vitamin B1.


The active form of thiamine is the coenzyme thiamine pyrophosphate and is essential for proper energy production and participates in carbohydrate metabolism.

Thiamine is involved with the other B vitamins in energy metabolism. Magnesium is required in the conversion of thiamine to its active form.


Inadequate intake affects the brain, spinal cord, heart, gastrointestinal tract and the peripheral nervous system and may result in fatigue, poor memory, and constipation.

The syndrome of peripheral neurological changes due to thiamine deficiency is called dry beriberi. The changes begin with pins and needles sensations in the toes and feet, burning sensation in the feet and muscle cramps in the calves.

When the heart is mainly affected the condition is called wet beriberi. This is high output cardiac failure and may result in pulmonary oedema and swelling of the feet.

Thiamine is essential for proper energy production in the brain. The combination of thiamine deficiency and alcohol can produce Cerebral beriberi, which is called Wernicke- Korsakoff’s syndrome, a serious brain disorder.



Riboflavin was first recognized as a yellow – green pigment in milk.

Riboflavin functions in two important enzymes FMN (flavin mononucleotide) and FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide). These act as essential coenzymes in many reactions involved in carbohydrate metabolism.


Green leafy vegetables are a source of riboflavin.


Inadequate intake results in oral, ocular, cutaneous and genital lesions.

The most common signs are pallor and maceration of the mucosa in the angles of the mouth (angular stomatitis) and a red colour to the lips (cheilosis) followed by fissures that may leave scars when healed. There are other signs of disorders of the mucous membranes. Rarely there may be changes to the eye.


Riboflavin is crucial in the production of energy and is involved in regenerating glutathione, one of the main cellular protectors of free radical damage. Riboflavin interacts with thiamine.



As the body converts tryptophan to niacin, niacin is not considered an essential nutrient as long as tryptophan intake is adequate.


Niacin is a component of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, which play an important role in energy production, fat, cholesterol and carbohydrate metabolism and in the manufacture of many body compounds including sex and adrenal hormones. It is also involved in the regulation of blood sugar, antioxidant mechanisms and detoxification reactions.


Inadequate intake causes pellagra, which is characterized by the 3 D’s- diarrhea, dermatitis and dementia. The skin develops scaly dermatitis, the brain does not function properly leading to confusion and dementia and the diarrhea results from impaired manufacture of the mucous lining of the gastrointestinal tract.


Niacin is involved with the other B vitamins in energy metabolism.



Vitamin B6 comprises a closely related group of compounds: pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal.


Vitamin B6 is required for the proper functioning of more than 60 different enzymes and plays a vital role in the multiplication of all cells.  Pyridoxine is an extremely important B vitamin involved in the formation of body proteins and structural compounds, chemical transmitters in the nervous system, red blood cells, prostaglandins and mucous membranes.  Vitamin B6 is critical in maintaining hormonal balance and proper immune function and is involved in the manufacture of all amino acid neurotransmitters.


Inadequate intake is rare but secondary deficiency may occur and result in changes in the skin, mucous membranes, the peripheral nerves and in blood.


Riboflavin and magnesium are necessary to convert pyridoxine to pyridoxal-5- phosphate and vitamin B6 interacts with magnesium and zinc.



Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) is required in the manufacture of coenzyme A and acyl carrier protein, two compounds that play a critical role in the utilization of carbohydrates and fats in energy production and in the manufacture of adrenal hormones and red blood cells.


A large number of foods contain pantothenic acid and its name is derived from the Greek word “pantos “ which means everywhere.

Inadequate intake is characterized by “burning foot syndrome” which consists of numbness and shooting pains in the feet.


Panthothenic acid works in conjunction with carnitine and coenzyme Q10 in fatty acid transport and utilization.



Biotin is a B vitamin that functions in the manufacture and utilization of fats and amino acids (proteins). Without biotin, body metabolism is severely impaired. Biotin is manufactured in the intestines by gut flora.

Biotin functions in the body as an essential co-factor for four enzymes. The enzymes are carboxylases that add a carbon dioxide molecule to another molecule to form a carboxyl group. Biotin-dependent carboxylases are involved in the metabolism of sugar, fat and amino acids.


Inadequate intake is characterized by dry, scaly skin, nausea, anorexia and seborrheic dermatitis.



The name is derived from the Greek word folium, which means foliage because it is found in high concentrations in green leafy vegetables. Folic acid functions together with vitamin B12 in many body processes. It is critical to cellular division because it is necessary in DNA synthesis and without folic acid cells do not divide properly. Folic acid is essential for the development of the central nervous system of the foetus and a deficiency of folic acid during pregnancy has been linked to several birth defects including neural tube defects like spina bifida.


Despite the wide occurrence of folic acid in food, folic acid deficiency is a common vitamin deficiency in the world. The reason reflects food choice as plants are a rich source but are not frequently consumed.


Inadequate intake affects all cells of the body but the rapidly diving cells such as red blood cells and the cells of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary that are affected the most.  This may result in poor growth, diarrhoea, anaemia, gum disease and an abnormal pap smear in women.


The anaemia of folic acid (or B12) deficiency is characterized by enlarged red blood cells (macrocytic anaemia). Folic acid is a methyl donor. It carries and donates methyl molecules to facilitate reactions, including the manufacture of DNA and neurotransmitters.


Homocysteine is an intermediate in the conversion of the amino acid methionine to cysteine. An inadequate intake of folic acid results in raised levels of homocysteine. This compound promotes atherosclerosis by damaging the vessel walls and in osteoporosis elevated homocysteine levels lead to a defective bone matrix.


Folic acid works together with vitamin B12, vitamin B6, Choline and SAM (S-adenosyl-methionine).




Choline is essential in the manufacture of the important neurotransmitter acetylcholine and some of the main components of our cell membranes. Choline is also required for the proper metabolism of fat. Although choline can be manufactured from amino acid precursors, it has recently been considered an essential nutrient.


When animals have an inadequate intake of choline they develop liver and kidney problems. An inadequate intake in humans results in liver dysfunction.


Choline like folic acid acts as a “methyl” donor. Choline supplementation increases the accumulation if acetylcholine in the brain an important chemical in many brain processes and may improve memory.


Choline works with other methyl donors and helps the body conserve folic acid and carnitine.



Inositol functions closely with choline and is a primary component if cell membranes.

Inositol is present mainly as a fibre component known as phytic acid. Intestinal bacteria liberate inositol from phytic acid.

Inositol like choline exerts a lipotropic effect. This means it promotes export of fat from the liver. Inositol is necessary for proper nerve, brain and muscle function.


Inositol works with other methyl donors.



Vitamin B12 is found mainly in animal foods.

Vitamin B12 works with folic acid in many body processes including DNA synthesis, red blood cells, and the insulation sheath (the myelin sheath) that surrounds nerves and conducts the impulse along the nerve. The stomach secretes intrinsic factor a substance required for the absorption of Vitamin B12.

Vitamin B12 is stored in the liver, kidney and other body tissues.

Inadequate intake affects the brain, spinal cord and the classic blood changes are pernicious anaemia. Impaired nerve function can cause numbness, pins and needles or a burning sensation. In addition to anaemia and nervous system symptoms Vitamin B12 deficiency can result in a beefy red tongue and diarrhoea.


Vitamin B12 like folic acid is a methyl donor and is involved in homocysteine metabolism and plays a critical role in energy metabolism, immune function and nerve function.

Vitamin B12 and folic acid work in conjunction and as B12 works to reactivate folic acid and inadequate intake of B12 results in a folic acid deficiency only if folic acid levels are marginal. A high intake of folic acid may mask a B12 deficiency as it prevents the changes in the red blood cells but does not counteract the changes in the brain.




The human body does not manufacture its own vitamin C. The primary function of Vitamin C is collagen formation, which is a major component of connective tissue, bones, cartilage, tendons and dentin. Specifically vitamin C aids in the joining of the amino acid proline to hydroxyproline resulting in a stable collagen structure.

In addition to its role in collagen metabolism vitamin C is also critical to immune function, wound repair, healthy gums, the manufacture of certain hormones and the prevention of easy bruising.

Vitamin C is a nutritional antioxidant.

In adequate intake result in lassitude, muscle pains, joint pains, poor wound healing, bleeding gums, extensive bruising and multiple small haemorrhages into the skin.

Vitamin C is intricately involved with other nutritional antioxidants especially vitamin E, selenium and b- carotene. Vitamin C increases the absorption of iron.



Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin and also considered a hormone, as our bodies can make it from sunlight. There are 2 major forms of vitamin D are D2 (ergocalciferol) found in irradiated yeast and vitamin D3  (cholecalciferol) formed in human skin by exposure to sunlight (ultraviolet light). Natural sources of vitamin D are cod liver oil, cold water fish, butter and egg yolks. The best vegetable sources of vitamin D are dark green leafy vegetables. Milk is fortified with both forms.

Vitamin D is a prohormone with several active metabolites that act as hormones. In the skin previtamin D3 is synthesized and slowly converted to vitamin D3 which is removed by vitamin binding protein and transported to the liver where is converted to 25(OH)D3 the major circulating form. It is reabsorbed from the gut and in the kidneys it is further converted to the active form 1,25(OH)2D3 also called calcitrol or vitamin D hormone. The action of the active form is controlled by parathyroid hormone.


The main function of vitamin D is to:-

  • Increase calcium and phosphate absorption from the small intestine.
  • Promote normal bone formation and mineralisation.
  • Maintain extracellular calcium homeostasis through its interaction with parathyroid hormone.


Groups at risk for low vitamin D levels are

  • People in residential care.
  • Older people admitted to hospital
  • Dark skinned women (particularly if veiled)


Causes of vitamin D deficiency are

  • Reduced intake
  • Reduced synthesis
  • Abnormal gut function and malabsorption e.g. small bowel disorders as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disorders.
  • Pancreatic and liver disorders.

Inadequate intake resulting in metabolic bone disease is called rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults. Rickets is abnormal formation of the developing bones and osteomalacia is demineralisation and softening of adults’ bones.



Vitamin E, a fat soluble vitamin, discovered in 1922, is a generic term for a group of related compounds called tocopherols which occur in four major forms, alpha (a), beta (b), delta (d) and gamma (g) tocopherols. Most animal species including human require vitamin E. a - tocopherol is the most common and most potent form.

One of vitamin E ‘s basic functions is to protect cell membranes. In general, the tocopherols act as antioxidants to prevent lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in cells membranes, meaning that is assists in destroying or neutralizing free radicals, the unstable oxygen molecules that cause damage to cells. Vitamin E is important to immune function protecting the thymus gland and circulating white blood cells from damage.

The principal use of vitamin E is an antioxidant in the protection against heart disease and strokes.


Good sources of vitamin E are seeds, nuts, whole grains, green leafy vegetables, berries and tomatoes.


Low levels of vitamin E occur in:-

  • Fat malabsorption syndromes such as celiac disease
  • Premature infants
  • Disorders of red blood cells
  • Haemodialysis patients.


The diseases caused by vitamin E deficiency are varied and may result in disorders of reproduction, abnormalities of liver, bone marrow and brain function, breaking (haemolysis) of red blood cells, muscle weakness and nerve damage.


Vitamin E interacts with other antioxidants especially vitamin C and selenium, improves the use of vitamin A, may be required to convert B12 to it’s active form and protects essential fatty acids from being damaged.



Vitamin K is essential for the manufacture of clotting factors. Recent studies show that vitamin K is also necessary for healthy bones and may play a role in preventing osteoporosis. There are 3 forms of vitamin K – vitamin K1 (phylloquinone) the natural vitamin K from plants; vitamin K2 (menaquinone) derived from bacteria in the gut; and vitamin K3 (menadione) a synthetic derivative.

One of the best sources of vitamin K is fat-soluble chlorophyll and the natural chlorophyll found in green plants is fat-soluble. Green leafy vegetables and green tea are a rich source of vitamin K.


Vitamin K plays an important role in bone health because it is responsible for converting a bone protein osteocalcin to its active form. Osteocalcin is the major non-collagen protein found in our bones and vitamin K is necessary for allowing osteocalcin to join with calcium and hold the calcium in the bone, assisting in the prevention of osteoporosis.


Vitamin K deficiency is rare in healthy adults because the bacteria in the gut can produce vitamin K2. Since newborns do not have gut bacteria they are susceptible to vitamin K deficiency.  However, vitamin K deficiency can occur in adults with a marginal dietary intake if they undergo extensive surgery or long term treatment with antibiotics.


Vitamin K deficiency is caused by a reduction in clotting factors.  Bleeding is the major manifestation whether the cause is dietary deficiency or antagonism of vitamin K by medications. Bruising, mucosal bleeding, excessive menstrual bleeding and haemorrhagic disease of the newborn occur.

Reduced vitamin K leads to impaired mineralisation of the bone and an increased susceptibility to fractures.



Chlorophyll, a phytochemical, is found in the chloroplasts of plants and is the substance that gives plants their green colour. This molecule, called a photoreceptor, absorbs sunlight and uses the energy to manufacture carbohydrates from CO2 and water. This process, known as photosynthesis is essential for maintaining life in plants.


The basic structure of chlorophyll is a porphyrin ring with a central atom, attached to a protein so it can function effectively. This is very similar in structure to haemoglobin; the structure in red blood cells that transports oxygen, except in haemoglobin the central atom is iron, whereas in chlorophyll it is magnesium. There are actually 2 types of chlorophyll, named a and b. Both of these two chlorophylls are very effective photoreceptors allowing the plant to absorb the energy from sunlight. This discovery resulted in chlorophyll becoming a useful nutritional aid. Chlorophyll can be altered when heated as the central Magnesium atom is replaced by hydrogen.


Chlorophyll has a similar effect as iron and is a nutrient for red blood cells. This can assist cells to function at an optimal level in an oxygenated environment.


It has been reported that chlorophyll cleanses the body, and strengthens the action of the vascular and intestinal systems.  Chlorophyll is a body cleanser, rebuilder, and neutralizer of toxins.  Chlorophyll deodorizes the bowel, is a natural antiseptic to the intestinal tract.  It is useful in external skin applications and as gargle.  Chlorophyll boosts the immune system and is an antioxidant, meaning it has the ability to scavenge free radicals, protecting cells from damage.  As chlorophyll is digested it is transformed into pheophytins which are much more stable than naturally occurring chlorophyll and are absorbed in the small intestine.


Chlorophyll is a potential anticarcinogenic substance and although the mechanism of action is varied, phytochemicals can inhibit carcinogenesis by inhibiting enzymes, scavenge DNA reactive agents and inhibit certain properties of a neoplastic cells.


The chlorophyll in Evolution is in the barley grass, which is also rich in vitamins and minerals and amino acids.




Minerals are vital to human life. Without them, the body cannot function effectively.  Minerals are inorganic substances that the body cannot manufacture.  Minerals often work in partnership with vitamins.  Even though minerals make up a small part of the body's actual weight, they are essential to life.


Six macrominerals are required daily by humans in varying amounts.  Four of them, cations (sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium) and two (phosphate and chloride) are anions.


Nine trace minerals (microminerals) are also required daily, namely, iron, iodine, fluorine, zinc, chromium, selenium, manganese, molybdenum, and copper.



Since 1980, evidence suggests that boron plays a major role in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus metabolism, which is the major components of bone and recent research, indicates Boron has a protective effect against osteoporosis.  Boron is necessary for the conversion of vitamin D to its active form.

Interestingly a diet rich in fruit and vegetables offers significant protection against osteoporosis and osteoarthritis, 2 conditions in which boron appears to offer benefit.

Inadequate intake may be associated with an increased risk for postmenopausal bone loss and increased urinary excretion of calcium.



Calcium in the most abundant mineral in the body and is vital to our health as 99% of all calcium in our bodies is found in our bones and it makes up 1.5-2% of the total body weight.  Calcium builds healthy bones and teeth.  Bone is dynamic living tissue constantly being replaced even in adults.  Normal bone metabolism depends on many nutrients and hormones but for optimum bone health calcium and vitamin D are the most important factors.

The primary source of calcium is dairy products but green leafy vegetables also contain calcium.  Inadequate intake in children may lead to rickets (bone deformities) and growth retardation.  In adults it may result in osteomalacia (softening of bones) and contributes to high blood pressure and osteoporosis.


Low blood levels may result in muscle spasms and leg cramps.


Calcium interacts with many nutrients especially vitamins D, K and magnesium.

High doses of magnesium, zinc, fibre and oxalates reduce calcium absorption.

Caffeine, alcohol, phosphates, protein, sodium and sugar increase calcium excretion.



In 1959 chromium was identified as a substance called the “glucose tolerance factor” primarily because of its effects on blood sugar control mechanisms.  Although it is thought to work closely with insulin in facilitating the uptake of glucose into cells, the apparent biological activity of chromium in promoting glucose tolerance remains unexplained.  Without chromium, the action of insulin is impaired and blood sugar levels are elevated.  Chromium is a factor in helping insulin work properly.



Copper is an essential trace mineral involved in several key enzymatic reactions and is the third most abundant essential trace mineral after iron and zinc.  The highest concentration of copper is in the brain and liver and copper is also distributed in skeletal muscle, bone, bone marrow and skin.

Copper is a heavy metal present in the body bound to proteins.  Excess copper absorbed in excreted via the bile.

It is required to convert the body's iron into haemoglobin and is essential for the utilization of Vitamin C. Our brain nerves and connective tissues depend on copper. 

Inadequate intake results in iron deficiency and anaemia, as copper is required for iron absorption and utilization.  Other symptoms are impaired immune function.

Copper also assists in the cross linking of collagen and a deficiency results in poor collagen integrity.  This poorly formed collagen results in damage to blood vessels, osteoporosis and bone and joint disturbances.

Copper is a component of ceruloplasmin and superoxide dismutase and performs antioxidant functions and various copper complexes exert an anti- inflammatory effect.

A high intake of vitamin C, zinc, iron and other minerals may decrease the absorption of copper.



Iodine is a trace element required in the manufacture of thyroid hormone (thyroxine and triiodothyronine) and 80% of the body's iodine is in the thyroid gland.

Inadequate intake of iodine results in a wide spectrum of illnesses and can affect any age but is particularly harmful in pregnant women and the newborn. The iodine deficiency disorders result in low thyroid hormone, which leads to an enlarged thyroid gland called a goitre.

Since iodine influences the thyroid and the thyroid controls metabolism, iodine plays an important role in brain function, energy and weight gain.



Iron is an essential mineral and is critical for human life. It is necessary for the production of:- haemoglobin (red blood corpuscles) where it transports oxygen from the lungs to the body’s tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs, myoglobin (red pigment in muscles) and certain enzymes including DNA synthesis.


Iron deficiency is the commonest nutritional deficiency in the world and is the most common cause of anaemia and symptoms of anaemia such as extreme fatigue reflect a lack of oxygen being delivered to the tissues and a build up of carbon dioxides.

Inadequate intake can also lead to excessive menstrual loss, learning difficulties, impaired immune function and decreased energy levels and physical performance.

High intake of other minerals mainly calcium, magnesium and zinc can interfere with iron absorption.

Vitamin C enhances iron absorption.

Anti-inflammatory medications may contribute to iron loss via gastrointestinal bleeding.



Magnesium is a mineral that has the ability to relax nerves and muscles. Its primary function is enzyme activation and approximately 60% of magnesium is in bone, 26% in muscle and the remainder in body tissues.  The tissues with the highest magnesium are the most metabolically active, namely, brain, heart, liver and kidney.  Most of the bodies' magnesium is within the cells and not in the serum (non cellular portion of blood).

Green leafy vegetables are a good source of magnesium.


Known as the "anti-stress" mineral, it also plays a role in helping to calm nerves.  Magnesium is important in converting blood sugar into energy.  This vital mineral is also necessary so our bodies can utilize Vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium in a more effective manner.  Magnesium helps to keep teeth healthy and is a helper in bringing temporary relief from indigestion. 



Manganese is a component of several enzyme systems and is essential for normal bone structure.  Intake varies greatly as rich sources of manganese are unrefined cereals, green leafy vegetables and tea.


Manganese functions in many enzyme systems including enzymes involved in blood sugar control, energy metabolism and thyroid hormone function.  It also functions in the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD), which prevents the damaging effects of free radicals.


Manganese helps to nourish the body's nervous system, brain and regulate muscles in the body.  It is found in virtually all body tissues.  This mineral works as an activator in helping to stimulate enzymes that can convert protein, fats and carbohydrates into energy.

It is important to both the male and female reproductive systems.

Human manganese deficiency is not as well defined as in animals.  Studies indicate that deficiency could lead to a disruption of normal growth and metabolism.



Molybdenum is a transition metal that forms oxides and functions as a component of several coenzymes including those involved in alcohol detoxification, uric acid formation and sulphur metabolism.

Molybdenum is derived mainly from meats, whole grain cereals and legumes.

The concentration of molybdenum in foods depends on the soil content.


An inadequate intake of molybdenum manifests as an inability to detoxify sulphites because the enzyme sulphite oxidase is sulphite dependent. The features of sulphite toxicity are an increased heart rate, headache, nausea and vomiting. Molybdenum deficiency may be the cause of sulphite sensitivities.


Molybdenum is almost completely absorbed from the intestinal tract.

Apart from the interaction between copper and fluoride, there are no known interactions with other nutrients.



Phosphorous, in the form of phosphate is critical for the formation and mineralisation of bone, the structure of teeth and works in conjunction with other minerals.

Phosphorous is present in lecithin in the form of phospholipids, which are a unique mixture of nitrogen, fatty acids and glycerol and assists in the metabolism of fats and carbohydrates.

Hormones produced by the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands require small amounts of phosphorous to function effectively.



Potassium and sodium, positively charged molecules, are electrolytes, which are mineral salts that conduct electricity when dissolved in water.  A negatively charged molecule like chloride always accompanies potassium or sodium. Chloride is the ionic form of chlorine.


Good sources of potassium are green leafy vegetables.

Potassium is the most abundant cation inside cells and is mainly in muscle. Only about 2% of potassium occurs out side the cell and sodium is the major cation outside the cells, namely, the extracellular compartment.  The total body sodium content is regulated by dietary intake and renal excretion. Potassium and sodium interact via a sodium-potassium pump, which is on the cell membrane and controls the amount of sodium and potassium inside and outside the cell.  This pump also maintains the electrical charge of the cell for muscle contraction and nerve impulse transmission.


Potassium is an important dietary electrolyte.  It is essential for the conversion of blood sugar to glycogen, which is stored in the liver and used for energy. Insulin is vital for potassium to enter the cells and insulin disorders such as diabetes result in high blood potassium.


A potassium deficiency is characterized by muscle weakness, fatigue, confusion, irritability, heart disturbances and problems in nerve conduction and muscle contraction.  A depletion of potassium occurs through excessive sweating, diahorrea and vomiting.


A diet low in potassium and high in sodium is associated with high blood pressure.  Numerous studies show that a diet high in sodium and low in potassium plays a major role in the development of cancer and cardiovascular disease, namely, heart disease, high blood pressure and strokes.


Patients with kidney disease do not handle potassium in the normal way.

Potassium interacts with magnesium in many body systems.



Rutin is a member of the bioflavinoids, a group of metabolites occurring in plants.  Rutin is important because it strengthens capillaries and controls the permeability of vessels walls.  This may assist with bruising, haemorrhoids, and varicose veins.  It is also a powerful antioxidant scavenging free radicals. It may be of value in high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.



Selenium is a part of the enzyme system glutathione peroxidase, which metabolises hydroperoxides from polyunsaturated fatty acids. Selenium functions as an antioxidant in conjunction with vitamin E to prevent free radical damage to cell membranes and other antioxidants work synergistically to raise glutathione peroxidase levels.  Selenium is required for the production of thyroid hormone and it is antagonistic to heavy metals like lead, mercury, aluminium and cadmium.

The concentration of selenium in foods is directly related to the soil content.


It has been reported that low levels of selenium are linked to a higher risk for cancer, cardiovascular disease and inflammatory diseases



Silicon is the second most abundant element on earth and was recognized as an essential nutrient in 1972.  The exact biological role of silicon is undetermined, however it is required for integrity of hair, skin, ligaments, tendons and bone.

Rich sources of silicon are unrefined grains.

Silicon is required for the enzyme prolyhydroxylase, that functions in the formation of collagen in bone, cartilage and other connective tissues.

Silicon deficiency has not been documented in humans 



Sulphur is vital for healthy hair, skin and nails. It also plays an important role in maintaining oxygen balance assisting the brain to function. Sulphur interacts with B-Vitamins.



Zinc is in every cell in the body and is found mainly in bones, hair, teeth, skin, liver, white blood cells and testes.  Other tissues with high zinc concentrations are kidney, pancreas, retina and prostate.  Zinc is a component of at least 200 enzymes and functions in more enzymatic reactions than any other mineral.  It is required for protein synthesis and cell growth and therefore for wound healing.


Rich sources of zinc are shellfish, fish and meats.  Good concentrations are found in several plant foods.


Adequate zinc levels are essential to good health, as zinc is involved in virtually every aspect of immunity.


Marginal zinc deficiency may result in an increased susceptibility to infection; poor wound healing, decreased sense of taste of smell and a number of minor skin disorders including acne, eczema and psoriasis.



Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, are individual chemical substances found in foods that the body digests and then recombines to form specific proteins.  Without amino acids there would be no proteins.  There are two types of amino acids, essential and non-essential.  The body can manufacture non-essential amino acids but essential amino acids are the components obtained from various food sources in the diet. Of the 20 amino acids in proteins, 9 are essential, all humans require 8 and infants require two more, histidine and arginine.


The essential amino acids are:- Histidine, Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan and Valine.


Dietary proteins provide amino acids to build and maintain tissues.  This need continues throughout life.  Every cell in the body requires amino acids, which have the following functions:-

  • Maintain and repair muscles, tendons, skin, ligaments, organs, glands, nail and hair.
  • Production of certain hormones including insulin, thyroxine, adrenaline, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and some of the pituitary hormones. Hormones are regulatory substances secreted by endocrine glands and are transported in the blood to specific sites.
  • Formation of neurotransmitters, which are message-carrying chemicals in the brain.
  • Involved in the synthesis of all enzymes including digestive enzymes and those required for oxidation, reduction and all chemical processes in the cell.

Š      All antibodies in the blood belong to a class of proteins called immunoglobulins, which react to foreign antigens in the blood.  This reaction is called the immune response.

The amino acid composition of proteins varies widely.  The extent to which a protein matches the amino acid composition of animal tissues determines its biological value (BV).  An egg provides all of the essential amino acids in adequate amounts for protein synthesis and the BV is a 100.  Animal proteins in milk and meat have a high BV (~90) whereas proteins in cereal and vegetables have a lower BV (~40). A correct balance in the diet is BV~70.

The major cause of amino acid deficiency is a poor diet low in protein, amino acids and may be affected by infection, stress, trauma and medications.



This information is intended for educational purposes only and is not recommended as a means of diagnosing, prescribing for, or treating any disease, illness, or injury. The author, publisher, and printer do not accept responsibility for such use. All matters concerning physical and mental health should be supervised by a health practitioner knowledgeable in treating that particular illness. It is hoped that this information will empower you to make more informed decisions regarding your health and wellbeing.



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